Law has been classified for different purposes and the purpose has determined the classification. The two commonest purposes are those of legislation and of teaching.
The oldest codes that have come down to us, of which one of the most complete is the code of the Babylonian King Hammurabi of about 1800 B.C., make little effort at what seems to us a logical classification.
In this code, as in the Greek codes of the fifth century B.C. as well as in the Twelve Tables, procedure plays a large part. The Corpus juris civilis, so far as the Digest was concerned, seems to have been arranged according to the sources of its material, one part being taken from the praetor’s edict, one from the writings of the Sabinian school, one from Papinian, and one miscellaneous.
Modern codes, beginning with the French Code of 1804, have for the most part followed the divisions introduced by the Institutes of Justinian in A.D. 533. The divisions are two: the law of persons and the law of things.
In the Institutes, inheritance was a part of the law of person, obligations part of the law of things, and penal law part of thelaw of procedure. Modern codes have separated these classes.
The modern tendency is to classify laws by subject matter, and, where codification is extensively used, there is, as in France, a separate code for each subject; a civil code, a code of criminal procedure, a code of commerce, a maritime code, a military code, an administrative code, and a forest code.
Other jurisdictions, such as California, have an even greater number of codes.
Changes in economic conditions being new matters into prominence and often require new classifications. The importance of labor relations, for example, has made it necessary to segregate “labor law” as a special body of law for purposes of teaching, and while administrative courts have been functioning in France since 1804, the subject of “administrative law” is a relatively new one in common-law countries and is rapidly growing in importance.
Similarly, it has been found advisable to deal with such subjects as “constitutional law,” “tax law,” and a few others as separate categories for purposes of exposition. More limited classifications such as “motor-vehicle” laws illustrate the special effect of new methods of transportation, and “aeronautic law” is one of obviously increasing importance.
In most instances, practical and not logical considerations are paramount in determining classification. Standardization of customs and of social conditions will create a need for common standards in classification which will in them play a large part in standardizing both procedural and substantive law.
Sports and entertainment law has emerged as one of the more popular boutique practice areas in the country. Law students, perhaps hypnotized by the glamor and excitement of show business, were attracted in large numbers of the opportunities in sports and entertainment law.
Unfortunately for these students, out of the many who aspire to greatness only a few ever see their names in lights, and very few lawyers reach the top of the entertainment business.
Because of sports, must, theater, and show business and different branches of the same industry, there are some common elements. Company lawyers represent teams, studios, and production companies. Agents represent the players, actors, and musicians.
Interestingly, many of these agents are not lawyers, although many are. Nonlawyer agents periodically may be required to use separately legal counselin work for their clients. Agents who are lawyers face unique ethical problems operating in an environment with non-lawyers who are not constrained by the same ethical duties.
In one sense, sports and entertainment law is basically contract law. All the parties to a transaction agree to perform certain functions in return for financial remuneration. The agreements governing these often complex productions are drafted and defended by lawyers.
Not the least of the problems encountered by sports and entertainment lawyers is the difficulty of dealing with colossal egos who possess a limited understanding of the law.
Lawyers in this field often engage in other areas of practice defined by their work setting. Thus, lawyers for a motion picture studio may practice corruption law. An agent for a movie star may be involved in financial planning and investment for his or her client.
Such investment may include independent production companies, restaurants, product endorsement, and a host of other ventures. Some of these lawyersalso get involved in other areas or practice involving their clients, including criminal law, domestic relations, and defamation.
The overall picture to be drawn of sports and entertainment law presents a diverse field that is both exciting and challenging, but very small in numbers. Many of those who succeed in this business have contacts in the industry that predate law school, and those considering a career in entertainment law should begin at an early date to develop such ties.
The field of international law has grown dramatically in recent decades as international relations have become more and more intertwined. Although countries have always had diplomatic relations and been engaged in trade, the advent or modern communication and transportation systems has inaugurated a globalized society.
The end of the Cold War and the emergence of the Third World have contributed to the changing international picture. Increasingly, it is becoming clear that some problems, such as environmental pollution, cannot be solved by single countries alone.
The field of international law can be divided into two broad areas: public international law and private or commercial international law. Although there can be considerable overlap between these two areas, as when governments become involved in trade policies such as tariffs and embargoes, there is a rough separation between the public and private sector.
This is truer today than it was during the days of the Cold War, when countries’ governments were the alter egos of the economic systems.
Public International Law
When most people think of international law they think of countries exchanging ambassadors, or the United Nations, or war crimes. From ancient times, nations have maintained diplomatic relations through the exchange of ambassadors.
Communications between governments through these ambassadors guided relations between the countries. When diplomatic relations were severed, war, another institution as old as human civilization, often ensued.
To be sure, over the centuries nations have even developed rules of war and armistice. War constantly redraws the world’s political map and exchanges the balance of power in the international community. There has probably been no time in human history when a state of war did not exist somewhere in the world.
Thus, issues of war and peace are intractably interwoven with public international law.
As the war with Iraq and negotiations over disarmament with rogue countries like North Korea cast a pall on the prospects for world peace, and revolutions in Third World countries make travel and business less than safe for Americans, public international law is as important as it has ever been in the history of the world.
The United States cannot afford the luxury of isolationism in a globally interdependent world. With more people travelling across borders, diplomatic services often provide needed assistance to visitors to other countries.
For some, this help may involve something simple like replacing a lost passport; for others, the problem may be more acute, such as facing criminal charges in a foreign legal system. The same kind of assistance is routinely provided to foreign nationals visiting in the United States by their own embassies and consulates.
For many Americans as well as foreigners, travel across borders can be for extended periods of time beyond vacations and sightseeing. It is not uncommon for temporary or even permanent jobs to force citizens of one country to spend extended periods of time in another country.
Some visitors may become permanent residents or expatriates, and a few even take the major step of seeking citizenship in their new home country (either renouncing their prior citizenship or gaining dual citizenship).
The burgeoning field of health law has become increasingly important as changes in medical and health care systems have permeated society. In former times, medicine was a fairly simple business; people went to a family doctor for routine ailments or to a local hospital for more serious procedures for most of their medical treatments.
The dentist, too, was a local practitioner who handled all but the most complex cases. People lived as best they could until disease or injury cut them down.
Advances in medical science have opened new approaches to combating serious trauma, disease, and mental disorders. HMOs have replaced home remedies as the first line of defence against an increasing variety of maladies.
Hospitals have become research and teaching facilities, no longer just places to go to wait for a recovery from surgery.
As medical knowledge has advanced, doctors and other health professionals have found it necessary to specialise in narrow fields of practice. Allied professions such as psychotherapy, rehabilitation, laboratory testing, and others now support primary medical services.
In the workplace, medical insurance has become a necessity rather than a luxury in the face of rising medical costs, particularly the enormous expenses associated with catastrophic major medical situations.
The cost of health services has escalated consistently to finance this increasingly complex system. Medical malpractice lawsuits and government regulations have contributed to the rising costs passed on to consumers.
The insurance industry has struggled to develop managed-care systems to provide more affordable medical services. Congress and state legislatures have engaged periodically in a national health care debate which continues.
All of this suggests that this isn’t your grandfather’s health care system anymore. What should be clear, however, is that health care permeates our lives. People today utilize a variety of health care professionals in a diversity or approaches, many of which were unheard of even a generation ago.
Significantly, there has been a major shift for both patients and professionals away from treatment towards prevention. Diet, exercise, and mental health are examples of ways people today reduce the risks of health care problems.
This trend in turn interacts with two other phenomena. This first may be described as patient autonomy: the right of a patient to make decisions about what to do with his or her body. This concept differs from the paternalistic model of traditional medicine, in which patients deferred to the informed judgment of their doctors.
Patients today want more information and want to make more decisions about their prevention and treatment alternatives.
The second phenomenon is that people are living longer. Actuarial tables demonstrate that life expectancies today are longer than for any period in history. Old people today are in their eighties, not in their sixties or forties as in some primitive civilization.
Demographically, there are more older people in society. In our time, some diseases have been virtually eliminated while others that were unheard of in the past have emerged to become major health problems.
It should come as no surprise that such a massive industry as health care should produce a host o attendant legal problems, or that such problems often require the services of lawyers to address them.
Although lawyers are not well regarded in some quarters of the health field, it is almost impossible to imagine so many diverse rights and interests being protected without lawyers, as if one could click her heels three times and the health care crisis would evaporate and society return to those bygone days when everyone had a friendly family physician who made house calls.
When an individual dies because of the misconduct or negligence of another person, counting murder, the surviving loved ones of the victim may file a suit for “wrongful death.” Most lawsuits regarding wrongful death pursue in the stir of criminal trials, with the use of similar evidence except with a lower proof standard. Nevertheless, someone who is found responsible for wrongful death may/may not be found guilty of a crime connected with that bereavement.
For instance, former actor and football celebrity O.J. Simpson wasn’t convicted of murder in 1994 since the prosecution wasn’t able to reasonably prove his guilt. However, he was found responsible for the unlawful death of two victims in the trial since the claimants were able to establish he was liable by the evidence’s preponderance.
A wrongful death lawsuit may be brought only by the close representative of the victim’s estate. Each state has a general “wrongful death statute,” which establishes the actions for bringing unlawful death proceedings. Actions for conscious pain, suffering and personal injury, or expenses acquired before the decedent’s passing are as well brought by the representative. The damage awards from these proceedings are owned by the estate, and could pass to various parties as guided by the will of the decedent.
Basics of a Wrongful Death Case
So as to bring a victorious cause of action from the wrongful death, the following rudiments should be present:
• The human being’s death;
• Attributable to another’s neglect, or with intention to cause injury;
• The family members’ survival, suffering monetary grievance due to the death, and;
• The personal representative’s appointment for the estate of the decedent.
A claim for wrongful death may take place out of numerous circumstances, like in the following circumstances:
• Medical malpractice causing decedent’s death;
• Airplane or automobile accident;
• Work-related exposure to unsafe substances or conditions;
• Criminal behavior;
• Death during an administered activity.
Damages in a Wrongful Death Case
Financial, or pecuniary, injury is the major measure of compensation during a wrongful death proceeding. Courts have inferred “pecuniary injuries” as counting the loss of services, support, lost inheritance prospect, and medical as well as funeral expenses. Nearly all laws offer that the awarded damages for an unlawful death must be just and fair payment for the financial injuries that are caused from the death of the decedent. If the distributees rewarded or are in charge for the medical care or funeral of the decedent, they may as well recover those costs. Lastly, a damage award includes interest starting from the day the decedent passed away.
Determining Pecuniary Loss
When settling on pecuniary loss, it’s important to think about the condition, age and character of the decedent, his/her life expectancy, earning capacity, intelligence and health, and the conditions of the distributees. This resolve may seem simple, but it frequently becomes a complex inquiry, remembering that the damage measure is actual financial loss. The main concern in damage awards is usually the state of the decedent during his/her death. For instance, when a breadwinner with dependants passes away, the main elements of the recovery are: 1) income loss, and 2) parental guidance loss. The jury could think about the earnings of the decedent during the time of his/her death, the final known salary if unwaged, as well as possible future earnings.
Adjustments in the Jury’s Award
In an unlawful death proceeding, the jury decides the amount of the damages award subsequent to hearing the evidences. The jury’s decision isn’t the last word, but, the award’s size may be changed downward or upward by the court for many reasons. For instance, if the decedent constantly wasted his income, then this might decrease the recovery of the family. Correspondingly, the courts will diminish the award once the decedent was a poor wage earner, even if he/she was young, had supported numerous children, and a great potential. A jury may simultaneously award lost wages regardless of the decedent having been unwaged, if he’d been employed in the past, and if the claimant provided evidence of the average earnings of the decedent while employed. If the claimant fails to provide such evidence, the court could keep back the damage award of the jury and arrange a new court trial.
Utilizing Expert Testimony to Determine Pecuniary Loss
Plaintiffs are capable of presenting professional economist testimony to set up the decedent’s value to his family. Until lately, this testimony wasn’t acceptable when a housewife passed away, but that law has changed. When the person who has died is a housewife, unemployed, the financial effect on the survivors won’t involve income loss, but better expenditures to carry on the services she used to provide or would’ve provided if she’d lived. Since jurors may be unknowledgeable concerning the financial value of the services of a housewife, experts may help the jury with regards to this evaluation.
Exemplary damages are awarded in case of malicious or serious unlawful activity to penalize the wrongdoer, or discourage others from acting similarly. In nearly all states, a claimant may not recover exemplary damages in an unlawful death action. There are a few states, on the other hand, that have detailed statutes permitting the recovery of exemplary damages. In states that don’t clearly disallow or allow exemplary damages in unlawful death actions, courts have permitted exemplary damages. A wrongful death attorney can recommend you with regard to whether your state permits exemplary damages.
Survival Actions for Personal Injury
Besides damages for unlawful death, the distributees could recover personal injury damages to the decedent, which are called “survival actions,” because the action for personal injury survives the individual who endured the injury. The personal representative of the decedent can take such an action along with the action for wrongful death, to help the estate of the decedent.
In a survival action intended for the conscious suffering and pain of a decedent, the jury could make numerous inquiries to settle on the sum of damages, counting: 1) the level of consciousness; 2) pain severity; and, 3) uneasiness of impending loss, together with the period of such distress.
If a loved one passed away after a mishap or injury attributable to the misconduct or negligence of another person, entity or company, you may be permitted to take a legal action against those to blame. Particularly in time for filing a lawsuit, you must contact an experienced personal injury law firm immediately to talk about your legal rights as well as your possible case.
Suffering injuries, whether work-related, a motorbike or car accident, or because of medical negligence, can be an extremely traumatic process, and though some people don’t get the opportunity to fight for their rights, making a claim for personal injury can help. There are many firms in different states that specialize in filing cases, not only for personal injury lawsuits but also for auto insurance as well as other issues. And while they all promote no-win-no-fee agreements, there are hidden costs with these firms at all times, because they are merely mediators and it is their way of earning an income.
If you’re undergoing such a dire situation, the ideal thing to do is hire the services of motorcycle accident attorneys, rather than agents from the claims firms. Wherever you reside throughout the United States, numerous law establishments focus on the personal injury claims, and that can give you exceptional service. The vital thing is to find the right one.
When seeking the best car wreck attorneys, it is ideal to concentrate on law establishments that are close to you, or in the same city at least, since after undergoing an injury or just being the victim of medical neglect, transportation could be a problem. So having a law establishment nearby is always wise. Moreover, if you hire local lawyers, there is a possibility that they already know the judges and mediators that you’ll have to face, and they’ll be able to represent your wellbeing in a more improved manner.
To find personal injury law establishments near you fast, the internet would be a great help, because you can simply type in your browser “personal injury lawyers” followed by your city or town’s name. The internet will show you results to look at and compare, and you can make the best decision then. On the other hand, if you find the whole search engine a bit tiresome and consuming, there are specialized platforms that can aid you in finding law establishments near you.
These platforms are easy to utilize, and all you need to do is enter your postcode. The website will then generate lists of local establishments of personal injury attorneys, and you can choose among them. These are bona fide law institutions that practice a no-win-no-fee basis. Furthermore, these platforms frequently let you directly contact the establishment of your choice, without contracting their services.
Additionally, people can rate their attorneys, basing on their knowledge and experience, as well as the level of service they have received, so before selecting a particular law establishment, you’ll be able to determine if past clients were pleased with their representation and service. These platforms are an extremely stress-free way to find local lawyers all over the United States, saving individuals a lot of effort and time in the process.
Whenever you encounter a personal injury that hurts you both physically and mentally, you may want to ask the help of a personal injury lawyer, also known as an injury lawyer. A personal injury attorney will use civil litigation to legally represent your case and prevent others from causing you more harm (the plaintiff), and assist you in claiming compensation for your damages. Personal injury lawyers protect their clients from becoming victims not only of negligent individuals but also corrupted insurance companies and even the legal system.
Your Case will depend Upon the Scope of Your Damages and Injuries
Depending on the case’s situation, as well as the scope of the damages and injuries that have been sustained, compensation could include legal costs and attorney fees, loss of consortium or companionship, emotional agony, reasonable medical costs (current and estimated), suffering and pain, and the loss of earning capacity.
Personal injury law involves injury to the body and mind, and some of the most common cases that a specialist personal injury lawyer will see in his career include auto accidents, animal bites, bicycle accidents, brain injuries, construction accidents, medical malpractice, slip and fall accidents, burn injuries, defective products, motorcycle accidents, wrongful death and spinal cord injuries.
A personal injury law specialist will deal with your case from the beginning to the later stages of your case. He or she will implement the same duties as any other legal processes, including the investigation of a claim, screening of possible clients, assessment of the merits of a case, evidence gathering, and formulation of legal theories, studying case law, and many more. They frequently deal with huge caseloads and handle tight deadlines and demanding clients.
Personal Injury Cases are Generally Complex
Personal injury cases are frequently complex, and it is for that reason why many experts in personal injury law focus on one or more fields. A few personal injury lawyers deal with medical malpractice lawsuits, and select a particular sub-specialization such as wrongful death, whereas those who specialize in motor vehicle accidents could specialize in aviation mishaps.
As you opt for the assistance of an injury lawyer, it’s very important to work carefully with him or her in proving the weight and significance of your case. An attorney will utilize his or her knowledge to quickly discern whether he or she could help you. Since personal injury lawyers frequently practice on a contingency basis, a part of the compensation will go directly to the lawyer upon settlement. This signifies that you will only pay if the attorney wins the case on your behalf.
If you have encountered a personal injury that affected you financially, physically or mentally, hiring an expert in the field will make perfect sense.
Numerous law firms focus on personal injury law. These law firms have qualities that make it very easy for them to help victims obtain the compensation they deserve.
Furthermore, the attorneys offer representation to victims who acquired injuries from accidents caused by negligent individuals. Moreover, they’re known as accident lawyers and must have sufficient law knowledge that handles civil damages. You would also want a legal team that has vast experience in trial work, in case your personal injury claim goes to trial. Here’s an example of a local San Antonio auto accident law firm specializing in personal injury and trial work.
Here are a few of the qualities:
A remarkable personal injury law firm must comprise a team of recognized attorneys that must be acquainted with every matter that pertain to personal injury. They must all have the proper knowledge and skills on various lawsuits.
Specialization in Legal Proceedings
You should select an excellent firm which focuses on personal injury law. Or seek a firm with a legal department that is found within your locality. The lawyers must be well aware of the proceedings, and they must assist you in winning the lawsuit. They must have the abilities to accomplish vital actions. They must be skilled in paperwork and in other related cases.
Handling Insurance Firms
There are cases when insurance firms don’t provide genuine claims. The attorneys will do their best to obtain compensation for the injuries you acquired. A remarkable firm must have substantial knowledge in dealing with the insurance firms. The lawyers must be able to discuss with the insurance firm’s representatives. They should reach a fair reimbursement or amenable solution for your damages.
Payment of Contingency Fees
A remarkable law firm knows that you may count on the compensation to pay for their fees. However, you are legally accountable to pay the fixed cost. A law firm won’t demand you to pay the total costs, until you get the right amount of compensation or until fair disbursement is provided to you. Contingency fees can be paid after you acquire the compensation.
Hiring other Experts
A law firm that focuses on personal injury is capable of employing other experts. They must have the knowledge needed to win a case. They will have to ask for the support of special detectives to gather information linked to the case, like the party involved, and the causes of the injury, to protect evidences which could make your case stronger.
A good attorney will assist an individual in making claims regarding the accident. The inflicted party must be aware of the reliability and experience of the firm. It’s best to select a firm that has ample experience and information on personal injury law.
Do you want to know if you have a medical malpractice case? Well, we will do our best to explain the different characteristics of a medical malpractice case in this section.
According to professional malpractice attorneys in the United States, a medical malpractice claim requires to have a few broad characteristics:
Failure to give an appropriate standard of care.
The law declares that there are standard medical principles by which healthcare experts should stick to when giving care for individuals. The medical career distinguishes these standards.
Patients are expected to acquire these medical standards once being treated. If the standard of care is perceived to be breached, there might have been medical negligence.
An injury is the effect of negligence
A claim can’t be generated if the individual thinks that the hospital or doctor was careless if it caused no injury or harm. The individual being treated has to show the carelessness resulted in the harm or injury, and that it wouldn’t have happened if the healthcare professional or provider hadn’t been careless.
If the patient isn’t happy with the result, then that in itself isn’t medical malpractice. It’s only malpractice when it’s established that the neglect resulted in the injury or harm. An injury without negligence isn’t considered malpractice, and neither is evident neglect if there’s no injury or harm.
The injury of the patient should have extremely damaging results.
Lawyers state that for a medical malpractice case to be successful, the victim has to confirm that the harm or injury caused by the negligence caused substantial damages. Attorneys are very expensive to pursue to the end. Instances of significant damages include enduring hardship, suffering, having to endure constant pain, significant income loss, as well as injury that immobilized the patient.
If the damages are minor, the victim will most likely pay out more on the claim than the final cash recovered.
If the patient doesn’t provide “informed permission” to a medical operation, the healthcare provider or doctor may be legally responsible if the procedure causes injury or harm, even though it was done perfectly. For instance, if a surgeon didn’t report to the individual that a medical/surgical operation has a 50% risk of brain damage, and that individual suffers one, the doctor will be legally responsible, even though the procedure was carried out perfectly, since the patient could have chosen not to proceed if they had been notified of the dangers.
Researchers in Harvard Medical School showed that a large minority of doctors and healthcare providers don’t think that patients should constantly be told of the entire truth.
This is a legal terminology that talks about any negligence that can cause personal harm. Personal negligence can involve an inconsiderate action that leads to injury to another individual. For instance, if you’re on a roof and knock a piece of brick onto another one’s head, this is an example of personal injury negligence. Moreover, it can include failure to take necessary action, for instance, if the owner of a property fails to get rid of ice from the pavement and somebody slides on it.
When a person’s negligence causes the harm of another, the individual that was responsible may face a personal injury case. For instance, if somebody slips on a shop’s wet floor, they can initiate a case (defendant) that someone is negligent, by demonstrating that the failure leads to the injury. Moreover, the injured individual will need to prove that it was the defendant’s inaction that caused any damage.
To Win a Personal Injury Case by Asserting Negligence
To win a personal injury negligence case, part of what you need to do is prove that the defendant breached his or her duty of care, a legal terminology that defines a standard of behavior that’s expected of a person, company, or organization. It means that if a rational individual could predict that an injury could occur due to certain actions or situations, they he has an obligation to avoid those actions or situations.
An example of this would be if a rational individual could predict that if they toss construction fragments off the rooftop, it could harm somebody walking below, so the individual working with these things should prevent themselves doing so. If they proceed doing so, and somebody gets injured, then that individual has breached the duty of care.
Cause of Negligence
The cause is another factor that’s vital in a personal injury negligence case. The individual who sues needs to prove that their injury was a result of somebody else being negligent. For instance, if a person fell down the stairs because a property owner didn’t maintain the steps, and the injured individual acquired back pain following such fall, then they will have to demonstrate that the accident leads to the pain. They will have to show that it wasn’t caused by another injury or condition that occurred before they accident.
The individuals who file the case has to demonstrate that he or she suffered damages as a result of the defendant’s action or inaction. Some instances of damages could be loss of work time after the injury, medical expenses, or income loss if the injury incapacitated them.